Brief History of Ireland
3000BC Construction of the Megalithic tombs at
700BC The Celts arrive from parts of Gaul and
350AD Christianity reaches Ireland.
432 St. Patrick arrives in Ireland and
confronts King Laoghaire who allows him to spread
the word of Christianity in Ireland.
700-800 Monastic culture is at its height.
795 Invasion by the Vikings.
1014 Brian Boru defeats the Vikings at Clontarf.
1169 Dermot MacMurrough, the exiled king of
Leinster, seeks help from 'Strongbow'.
1172 King Henry II of England is declared Feudal
Lord of Ireland by the Pope.
1366 Statues of Kilkenny belatedly forbid
intermarriage of English and Irish. Gaelic culture
1534-40 Insurrection by Lord Offaly fails.
1541 Henry VIII proclaimed King of Ireland.
1558-03 Plantation of Ireland commences under the
reign of Elizabeth I.
1595-03 Failed uprising of Hugh O'Neil.
1607 Flight of the Earls and leading Ulster
families go into exile.
1641 King Charles I's policies cause
insurrection in Ulster and Civil War in England.
1649 Cromwell invades Ireland.
1653 Cromwell's opponents stripped of land
under the Act of Settlement.
1689-90 Deposed James II flees to Ireland and is
defeated at the Battle of the Bon.
1704 The Penal Laws enacted: Catholics are
barred from voting, education and the military.
1775 American War of Independence instigates
1782 Grattan's Parliament persuades English to
declare Irish independence, but in name only.
1795 The Orange Order is founded.
1798 Uprising by Wolfe Tone and the United
Irishmen is crushed.
1801 Ireland becomes part of Britain under the
Act of Union.
1829 Catholic Emancipation Act passed after
Daniel O'Connell elected as MP.
1845-49 The Great Famine claims over 1 million
lives through starvation and disease. Emigration
over the next 10 years results in departure of a
further 1 million people.
1879-82 The Land War is instigated by Parnell who
encourages the boycott of repressive landlords.
The 3 'F's are gained for the peasantry: Fixity of
Tenure, Fair Rent, Freedom to sell their holding.
1914 The Implementation of Home Rule is
postponed because of the outbreak of World War I.
1916 The Easter Rising is led by Pearse,
Connolly and others. The 7 leaders are executed
which shifts public opinion in favour of the
1920-21 Michael Collins masterminds the War of
Independence between Britain and Ireland. The
Irish Free State is created (excluding the 6
1922-23 Civil war breaks out between the Free
State Army and the Irregulars (the IRA).
1926 Fianna Fail party formed and led by
1932 DeValera elected Taoiseach of Ireland.
1939-45 Ireland remains neutral during WW2 despite
the offer of a United Ireland having been made to
DeValera if Ireland enters the war on behalf of
1948 Ireland declared a Republic by Costello.
Northern Ireland is declared a separate entity.
1969 Rioting between Catholics and Protestants.
Civil Rights marches. British troops called in
to keep order.
1971 Provisional IRA begins campaign to oust
British troops from Ireland.
1972 Republic of Ireland joins the European
1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement signed.
1994 Peace Declaration and IRA ceasefire.
1998 'Good Friday' agreement reached promising
the creation of a Northern Assembly.
2002 Northern parliament is suspended
1995-2005 Economic boom in Ireland